Open CASCADE Technology  7.3.1.dev
IGES Support

Introduction

The IGES interface reads IGES files and translates them to Open CASCADE Technology models. The interface is able to translate one entity, a group of entities or a whole file. Before beginning a translation, you can set a range of parameters to manage the translation process. If you like, you can also check file consistency before translation. The IGES interface also translates OCCT models to IGES files.

Other kinds of data such as colors and names can be read or written with the help of XDE tools IGESCAFControl_Reader and IGESCAFControl_Writer.

Note :

  • an IGES model is an IGES file that has been loaded into memory.
  • an IGES entity is an entity in the IGES normal sense.
  • a root entity is the highest level entity of any given type, e.g. type 144 for surfaces and type 186 for solids. Roots are not referenced by other entities.

This manual mainly explains how to convert an IGES file to an Open CASCADE Technology (OCCT) shape and vice versa. It provides basic documentation on conversion. For advanced information on conversion, see our E-learning & Training offerings.

IGES files produced in accordance with IGES standard versions up to and including version 5.3 can be read. IGES files that are produced by this interface conform to IGES version 5.3 (Initial Graphics Exchange Specification, IGES 5.3. ANS US PRO/IPO-100-1996).

This manual principally deals with two OCCT classes:

  • The Reader class, which loads IGES files and translates their contents to OCCT shapes,
  • The Writer class, which translates OCCT shapes to IGES entities and then writes these entities to IGES files.

File translation is performed in the programming mode, via C++ calls, and the resulting OCCT objects are shapes.

All definitions in IGES version 5.3 are recognized but only 3D geometric entities are translated. When the processor encounters data, which is not translated, it ignores it and writes a message identifying the types of data, which was not handled. This message can be written either to a log file or to screen output.

Shape Healing toolkit provides tools to heal various problems, which may be encountered in translated shapes, and to make them valid in Open CASCADE. The Shape Healing is smoothly connected to IGES translator using the same API, only the names of API packages change.

Reading IGES

Procedure

You can translate an IGES file to an OCCT shape by following the steps below:

  1. Load the file,
  2. Check file consistency,
  3. Set the translation parameters,
  4. Perform the file translation,
  5. Fetch the results.

Domain covered

Translatable entities

The types of IGES entities, which can be translated, are:

  • Points
  • Lines
  • Curves
  • Surfaces
  • B-Rep entities
  • Structure entities (groups). Each entity in the group outputs a shape. There can be a group of groups.
  • Subfigures. Each entity defined in a sub-figure outputs a shape
  • Transformation Matrix.

Note that all non-millimeter length unit values in the IGES file are converted to millimeters.

Attributes

Entity attributes in the Directory Entry Section of the IGES file (such as layers, colors and thickness) are translated to Open CASCADE Technology using XDE.

Administrative data

Administrative data, in the Global Section of the IGES file (such as the file name, the name of the author, the date and time a model was created or last modified) is not translated to Open CASCADE Technology. Administrative data can, however, be consulted in the IGES file.

Description of the process

Loading the IGES file

Before performing any other operation, you have to load the file using the syntax below.

IGESControl_Reader reader;
IFSelect_ReturnStatus stat = reader.ReadFile(“filename.igs”);

The loading operation only loads the IGES file into computer memory; it does not translate it.

Checking the IGES file

This step is not obligatory. Check the loaded file with:

Standard_Boolean ok = reader.Check(Standard_True);

The variable “ok is True” is returned if no fail message was found; “ok is False” is returned if there was at least one fail message.

reader.PrintCheckLoad (failsonly, mode);

Error messages are displayed if there are invalid or incomplete IGES entities, giving you information on the cause of the error.

Standard_Boolean failsonly = Standard_True or Standard_False;

If you give True, you will see fail messages only. If you give False, you will see both fail and warning messages.

Your analysis of the file can be either message-oriented or entity-oriented. Choose your preference with IFSelect_PrintCount mode = IFSelect_xxx, where xxx can be any of the following:

  • ItemsByEntity gives a sequential list of all messages per IGES entity.
  • CountByItem gives the number of IGES entities with their types per message.
  • ShortByItem gives the number of IGES entities with their types per message and displays rank numbers of the first five IGES entities per message.
  • ListByItem gives the number of IGES entities with their type and rank numbers per message.
  • EntitiesByItem gives the number of IGES entities with their types, rank numbers and Directory Entry numbers per message.

Setting translation parameters

The following parameters can be used to translate an IGES file to an OCCT shape. If you give a value that is not within the range of possible values, it will be ignored.

read.iges.bspline.continuity

manages the continuity of BSpline curves (IGES entities 106, 112 and 126) after translation to Open CASCADE Technology (Open CASCADE Technology requires that the curves in a model be at least C1 continuous; no such requirement is made by IGES).

  • 0: no change; the curves are taken as they are in the IGES file. C0 entities of Open CASCADE Technology may be produced.
  • 1: if an IGES BSpline, Spline or CopiousData curve is C0 continuous, it is broken down into pieces of C1 continuous Geom_BSplineCurve.
  • 2: This option concerns IGES Spline curves only. IGES Spline curves are broken down into pieces of C2 continuity. If C2 cannot be ensured, the Spline curves will be broken down into pieces of C1 continuity.

Read this parameter with:

Standard_Integer ic = Interface_Static::IVal("read.iges.bspline.continuity");

Modify this value with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetIVal ("read.iges.bspline.continuity",2))
.. error ..;

Default value is 1.

This parameter does not change the continuity of curves that are used in the construction of IGES BRep entities. In this case, the parameter does not influence the continuity of the resulting OCCT curves (it is ignored).

read.precision.mode

reads the precision value.

  • File (0) the precision value is read in the IGES file header (default).
  • User (1) the precision value is that of the read.precision.val parameter.

Read this parameter with:

Standard_Integer ic = Interface_Static::IVal("read.precision.mode");

Modify this value with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetIVal ("read.precision.mode",1))
.. error ..;

Default value is File (0).

read.precision.val

User defined precision value. This parameter gives the precision for shape construction when the read.precision.mode parameter value is 1. By default it is 0.0001, but can be any real positive (non null) value.

This value is in the measurement unit defined in the IGES file header.

Read this parameter with:

Standard_Real rp = Interface_Static::RVal("read.precision.val");

Modify this parameter with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetRVal ("read.precision.val",0.001))
.. error ..;

Default value is 0.0001.

The value given to this parameter is a target value that is applied to TopoDS_Vertex, TopoDS_Edge and TopoDS_Face entities. The processor does its best to reach it. Under certain circumstances, the value you give may not be attached to all of the entities concerned at the end of processing. IGES-to-OCCT translation does not improve the quality of the geometry in the original IGES file. This means that the value you enter may be impossible to attain the given quality of geometry in the IGES file.

Value of tolerance used for computation is calculated by multiplying the value of read.precision.val and the value of coefficient of transfer from the file units to millimeters.

read.maxprecision.mode

defines the mode of applying the maximum allowed tolerance. Its possible values are:

  • Preferred(0) maximum tolerance is used as a limit but sometimes it can be exceeded (currently, only for deviation of a 3D curve of an edge from its pcurves and from vertices of such edge) to ensure shape validity;
  • Forced(1) maximum tolerance is used as a rigid limit, i.e. it can not be exceeded and, if this happens, tolerance is trimmed to suit the maximum-allowable value.

Read this parameter with:

Standard_Integer mv = Interface_Static::IVal("read.maxprecision.mode");

Modify this parameter with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetIVal ("read.maxprecision.mode",1))
.. error ..;

Default value is Preferred (0).

read.maxprecision.val

defines the maximum allowable tolerance (in mm) of the shape. It should be not less than the basis value of tolerance set in processor (either Resolution from the file or read.precision.val). Actually, the maximum between read.maxprecision.val and basis tolerance is used to define maximum allowed tolerance. Read this parameter with:

Standard_Real rp = Interface_Static::RVal("read.maxprecision.val");

Modify this parameter with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetRVal ("read.maxprecision.val",0.1))
.. error ..;

Default value is 1.

read.stdsameparameter.mode

defines the using of BRepLib::SameParameter. Its possible values are:

  • 0 (Off) – BRepLib::SameParameter is not called,
  • 1 (On) – BRepLib::SameParameter is called. BRepLib::SameParameter is used through ShapeFix_Edge::SameParameter. It ensures that the resulting edge will have the lowest tolerance taking pcurves either unmodified from the IGES file or modified by BRepLib::SameParameter. Read this parameter with:
    Standard_Integer mv = Interface_Static::IVal("read.stdsameparameter.mode");
    Modify this parameter with:
    if (!Interface_Static::SetIVal ("read.stdsameparameter.mode",1))
    .. error ..;
    Deafault value is 0 (Off).

read.surfacecurve.mode

preference for the computation of curves in case of 2D/3D inconsistency in an entity which has both 2D and 3D representations.

Here we are talking about entity types 141 (Boundary), 142 (CurveOnSurface) and 508 (Loop). These are entities representing a contour lying on a surface, which is translated to a TopoDS_Wire, formed by TopoDS_Edges. Each TopoDS_Edge must have a 3D curve and a 2D curve that reference the surface.

The processor also decides to re-compute either the 3D or the 2D curve even if both curves are translated successfully and seem to be correct, in case there is inconsistency between them. The processor considers that there is inconsistency if any of the following conditions is satisfied:

  • the number of sub-curves in the 2D curve is different from the number of sub-curves in the 3D curve. This can be either due to different numbers of sub-curves given in the IGES file or because of splitting of curves during translation.
  • 3D or 2D curve is a Circular Arc (entity type 100) starting and ending in the same point (note that this case is incorrect according to the IGES standard).

The parameter read.surfacecurve.mode defines which curve (3D or 2D) is used for re-computing the other one:

  • Default(0) use the preference flag value in the entity's Parameter Data section. The flag values are:
    • 0: no preference given,
    • 1: use 2D for 142 entities and 3D for 141 entities,
    • 2: use 3D for 142 entities and 2D for 141 entities,
    • 3: both representations are equally preferred.
  • 2DUse_Preferred (2) : the 2D is used to rebuild the 3D in case of their inconsistency,
  • 2DUse_Forced (-2): the 2D is always used to rebuild the 3D (even if 3D is present in the file),
  • 3DUse_Preferred (3): the 3D is used to rebuild the 2D in case of their inconsistency,
  • 3DUse_Forced (-3): the 3D is always used to rebuild the 2D (even if 2D is present in the file),

If no preference is defined (if the value of read.surfacecurve.mode is Default and the value of the preference flag in the entity's Parameter Data section is 0 or 3), an additional analysis is performed.

The 3D representation is preferred to the 2D in two cases:

  • if 3D and 2D contours in the file have a different number of curves,
  • if the 2D curve is a Circular Arc (entity type 100) starting and ending in the same point and the 3D one is not.

In any other case, the 2D representation is preferred to the 3D.

If either a 3D or a 2D contour is absent in the file or cannot be translated, then it is re-computed from another contour. If the translation of both 2D and 3D contours fails, the whole curve (type 141 or 142) is not translated. If this curve is used for trimming a face, the face will be translated without this trimming and will have natural restrictions.

Read this parameter with:

Standard_Integer ic = Interface_Static::IVal("read.surfacecurve.mode");

Modify this value with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetIVal ("read.surfacecurve.mode",3))
.. error ..;

Default value is Default (0).

read.encoderegularity.angle

This parameter is used within the BRepLib::EncodeRegularity() function which is called for a shape read from an IGES or a STEP file at the end of translation process. This function sets the regularity flag of an edge in a shell when this edge is shared by two faces. This flag shows the continuity, which these two faces are connected with at that edge.

Read this parameter with:

Standard_Real era = Interface_Static::RVal("read.encoderegularity.angle");

Modify this parameter with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetRVal ("read.encoderegularity.angle",0.1))
.. error ..;

Default value is 0.01.

read.iges.bspline.approxd1.mode

This parameter is obsolete (it is rarely used in real practice). If set to True, it affects the translation of bspline curves of degree 1 from IGES: these curves (which geometrically are polylines) are split by duplicated points, and the translator attempts to convert each of the obtained parts to a bspline of a higher continuity.

Read this parameter with:

Standard_Real bam = Interface_Static::CVal("read.iges.bspline.approxd1.mode");

Modify this parameter with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetRVal ("read.encoderegularity.angle","On"))
.. error ..;

Default value is Off.

read.iges.resource.name and read.iges.sequence

These two parameters define the name of the resource file and the name of the sequence of operators (defined in that file) for Shape Processing, which is automatically performed by the IGES translator. The Shape Processing is a user-configurable step, which is performed after the translation and consists in application of a set of operators to a resulting shape. This is a very powerful tool allowing to customize the shape and to adapt it to the needs of a receiving application. By default, the sequence consists of a single operator ShapeFix that calls Shape Healing from the IGES translator.

Find an example of the resource file for IGES (which defines parameters corresponding to the sequence applied by default, i.e. if the resource file is not found) in the Open CASCADE Technology sources by the path CASROOT%/src/XSTEPResource/IGES.

IGES translator will use that file if you define the environment variable CSF_IGESDefaults, which should point to the directory where the resource file resides. Note that if you change parameter read.iges.resource.name, you should change the name of the resource file and the name of the environment variable correspondingly. The variable should contain a path to the resource file.

Default values:

  • read.iges.resource.name – IGES,
  • read.iges.sequence – FromIGES.

xstep.cascade.unit

This parameter defines units to which a shape should be converted when translated from IGES or STEP to CASCADE. Normally it is MM; only those applications that work internally in units other than MM should use this parameter.

Default value is MM.

Selecting entities

A list of entities can be formed by invoking the method IGESControl_Reader::GiveList.

Handle(TColStd_HSequenceOfTransient) list = reader.GiveList();

Several predefined operators can be used to select a list of entities of a specific type. To make a selection, use the method IGESControl_Reader::GiveList with the selection type in quotation marks as an argument. You can also make cumulative selections. For example, you would use the following syntax:

  1. Requesting the faces in the file:
    faces = Reader.GiveList("iges-faces");
  2. Requesting the visible roots in the file:
    visibles = Reader.GiveList(iges-visible-roots);
  3. Requesting the visible faces:
    visfac = Reader.GiveList(iges-visible-roots,faces);
    Using a signature, you can define a selection dynamically, filtering the string by means of a criterion. When you request a selection using the method GiveList, you can give either a predefined selection or a selection by signature. You make your selection by signature using the predefined signature followed by your criterion in parentheses as shown in the example below. The syntaxes given are equivalent to each other.
    faces = Reader.GiveList(“xst-type(SurfaceOfRevolution)”);
    faces = Reader.GiveList(“iges-type(120)”);
    You can also look for:
    • values returned by your signature which match your criterion exactly
      faces = Reader.GiveList(“xst-type(=SurfaceOfRevolution)”);
    • values returned by your signature which do not contain your criterion
      faces = Reader.GiveList(“xst-type(!SurfaceOfRevolution)”);
    • values returned by your signature which do not exactly match your criterion.
      faces = Reader.GiveList(“xst-type(!=SurfaceOfRevolution)”);

List of predefined operators that can be used:

  • xst-model-all – selects all entities.
  • xst-model-roots – selects all roots.
  • xst-transferrable-all – selects all translatable entities.
  • xst-transferrable-roots – selects all translatable roots (default).
  • xst-sharing + <selection> – selects all entities sharing at least one entity selected by <selection>.
  • xst-shared + <selection> – selects all entities shared by at least one entity selected by <selection>.
  • iges-visible-roots – selects all visible roots, whether translatable or not.
  • iges-visible-transf-roots – selects all visible and translatable roots.
  • iges-blanked-roots – selects all blank roots, whether translatable or not.
  • iges-blanked-transf-roots – selects all blank and translatable roots.
  • iges-status-independant – selects entities whose IGES Subordinate Status = 0.
  • iges-bypass-group – selects all root entities. If a root entity is a group (402/7 or 402/9), the entities in the group are selected.
  • iges-bypass-subfigure – selects all root entities. If a root entity is a subfigure definition (308), the entities in the subfigure definition are selected.
  • iges-bypass-group-subfigure – selects all root entities. If a root entity is a group (402/7 or 402/9) or a subfigure definition (308), the entities in the group and in the subfigure definition are selected.
  • iges-curves-3d – selects 3D curves, whether they are roots or not (e.g. a 3D curve on a surface).
  • iges-basic-geom – selects 3D curves and untrimmed surfaces.
  • iges-faces – selects face-supporting surfaces (trimmed or not).
  • iges-surfaces – selects surfaces not supporting faces (i.e. with natural bounds).
  • iges-basic-curves-3d – selects the same entities as iges-curves-3d. Composite Curves are broken down into their components and the components are selected.

Performing the IGES file translation

Perform translation according to what you want to translate:

  1. Translate an entity identified by its rank with:
    Standard_Boolean ok = reader.Transfer (rank);
  2. Translate an entity identified by its handle with:
    Standard_Boolean ok = reader.TransferEntity (ent);
  3. Translate a list of entities in one operation with:
    Standard_Integer nbtrans = reader.TransferList (list);
    reader.IsDone();
    where nbtrans returns the number of items in the list that produced a shape and reader.IsDone() indicates whether at least one entity was translated.
  4. Translate a list of entities, entity by entity:
    Standard_Integer i,nb = list-Length();
    for (i = 1; i <= nb; i ++) {
    Handle(Standard_Transient) ent = list-Value(i);
    Standard_Boolean OK = reader.TransferEntity (ent);
    }
  5. Translate the whole file (all entities or only visible entities) with:
    Standard_Boolean onlyvisible = Standard_True or Standard_False;
    reader.TransferRoots(onlyvisible)

Getting the translation results

Each successful translation operation outputs one shape. A series of translations gives a series of shapes. Each time you invoke TransferEntity, Transfer or Transferlist, their results are accumulated and NbShapes increases. You can clear the results (Clear function) between two translation operations, if you do not do this, the results from the next translation will be added to the accumulation. TransferRoots operations automatically clear all existing results before they start.

Standard_Integer nbs = reader.NbShapes();

returns the number of shapes recorded in the result.

TopoDS_Shape shape = reader.Shape(num);,

returns the result num, where num is an integer between 1 and NbShapes.

TopoDS_Shape shape = reader.Shape();

returns the first result in a translation operation.

TopoDS_Shape shape = reader.OneShape();

returns all results in a single shape which is:

  • a null shape if there are no results,
  • in case of a single result, a shape that is specific to that result,
  • a compound that lists the results if there are several results.
    reader.Clear();
    erases the existing results.
    reader.PrintTransferInfo (failsonly, mode);
    displays the messages that appeared during the last invocation of Transfer or TransferRoots.

If failsonly is IFSelect_FailOnly, only fail messages will be output, if it is IFSelect_FailAndWarn, all messages will be output. Parameter “mode” can have IFSelect_xxx values where xxx can be:

  • GeneralCount – gives general statistics on the transfer (number of translated IGES entities, number of fails and warnings, etc)
  • CountByItem – gives the number of IGES entities with their types per message.
  • ListByItem – gives the number of IGES entities with their type and DE numbers per message.
  • ResultCount – gives the number of resulting OCCT shapes per type.
  • Mapping – gives mapping between roots of the IGES file and the resulting OCCT shape per IGES and OCCT type.

Mapping of IGES entities to Open CASCADE Technology shapes

NOTE that IGES entity types that are not given in the following tables are not translatable.

Points

IGES entity type CASCADE shape Comments
116: Point TopoDS_Vertex

Curves

Curves, which form the 2D of face boundaries, are translated as Geom2D_Curves (Geom2D circles, etc.).

IGES entity type CASCADE shape Comments
100: Circular Arc TopoDS_Edge The geometrical support is a Geom_Circle or a Geom_TrimmedCurve (if the arc is not closed).
102: Composite Curve TopoDS_Wire The resulting shape is always a TopoDS_Wire that is built from a set of TopoDS_Edges. Each TopoDS_Edge is connected to the preceding and to the following edge by a common TopoDS_Vertex.
104: Conic Arc TopoDS_Edge The geometric support depends on whether the IGES entity's form is 0 (Geom_Circle), 1 (Geom_Ellipse), 2 (Geom_Hyperbola), or 3 (Geom_Parabola). A Geom_TrimmedCurve is output if the arc is not closed.
106: Copious Data TopoDS_Edge or TopoDS_Wire IGES entity Copious Data (type 106, forms 1-3) is translated just as the IGES entities Linear Path (106/11-13) and the Simple Closed Planar Curve (106/63). Vectors applying to forms other than 11,12 or 63 are ignored. The Geom_BSplineCurve (geometrical support) has C0 continuity. If the Copious Data has vectors (DataType = 3) they will be ignored.
110: Line TopoDS_Edge The supporting curve is a Geom_TrimmedCurve whose basis curve is a Geom_Line.
112: Parametric Spline Curve TopoDS_Edge or TopoDS_Wire The geometric support is a Geom_BsplineCurve.
126: BSpline Curve TopoDS_Edge or TopoDS_Wire
130: Offset Curve TopoDS_Edge or TopoDS_Wire The resulting shape is a TopoDS_Edge or a TopoDS_Wire (depending on the translation of the basis curve) whose geometrical support is a Geom_OffsetCurve built from a basis Geom_Curve. Limitation: The IGES Offset Type value must be 1.
141: Boundary TopoDS_Wire Same behavior as for the Curve On Surface (see below). The translation of a non-referenced Boundary IGES entity in a BoundedSurface IGES entity outputs a TopoDS_Edge or a TopoDS_Wire with a Geom_Curve.
142: Curve On Surface TopoDS_Wire Each TopoDS_Edge is defined by a 3D curve and by a 2D curve that references the surface.

The type of OCCT shapes (either TopDS_Edges or TopoDS_Wires) that result from the translation of IGES entities 106, 112 and 126 depends on the continuity of the curve in the IGES file and the value of the read.iges.bspline.continuity translation parameter.

Surfaces

Translation of a surface outputs either a TopoDS_Face or a TopoDS_Shell. If a TopoDS_Face is output, its geometrical support is a Geom_Surface and its outer and inner boundaries (if it has any) are TopoDS_Wires.

IGES entity type CASCADE shape Comments
108: Plane TopoDS_Face The geometrical support for the TopoDS_Face is a Geom_Plane and the orientation of its TopoDS_Wire depends on whether it is an outer TopoDS_Wire or whether it is a hole.
114: Parametric Spline Surface TopoDS_Face The geometrical support of a TopoDS_Face is a Geom_BSplineSurface.
118: Ruled Surface TopoDS_Face or TopoDS_Shell The translation of a Ruled Surface outputs a TopoDS_Face if the profile curves become TopoDS_Edges, or a TopoDS_Shell if the profile curves become TopoDS_Wires. Limitation: This translation cannot be completed when these two TopoDS_Wires are oriented in different directions.
120: Surface Of Revolution TopoDS_Face or TopoDS_Shell The translation of a Surface Of Revolution outputs: a TopoDS_Face if the generatrix becomes a TopoDS_Edge, a TopoDS_Shell if the generatrix becomes a TopoDS_Wire. The geometrical support may be: Geom_CylindricalSurface, Geom_ConicalSurface, Geom_SphericalSurface, Geom_ToroidalSurface or a Geom_SurfaceOfRevolution depending on the result of the CASCADE computation (based on the generatrix type).
122: Tabulated Cylinder TopoDS_Face or TopoDS_Shell The translation outputs a TopoDS_Face if the base becomes a TopoDS_Edge or a TopoDS_Shell if the base becomes a TopoDS_Wire. The geometrical support may be Geom_Plane, Geom_Cylindrical Surface or a Geom_SurfaceOfLinearExtrusion depending on the result of the CASCADE computation (based on the generatrix type). The Geom_Surface geometrical support is limited according to the generatrix.
128: BSpline Surface TopoDS_Face The geometrical support of the TopoDS_Face is a Geom_BsplineSurface.
140: Offset Surface TopoDS_Face The translation of an Offset Surface outputs a TopoDS_Face whose geometrical support is a Geom_OffsetSurface. Limitations: For OCCT algorithms, the original surface must be C1-continuous so that the Geom_OffsetSurface can be created. If the basis surface is not C1-continuous, its translation outputs a TopoDS_Shell and only the first TopoDS_Face in the TopoDS_Shell is offset.
143: Bounded Surface TopoDS_Face or TopoDS_Shell If the basis surface outputs a TopoDS_Shell (that has more than one TopoDS_Face), the IGES boundaries are not translated. Limitations: If the bounding curves define holes, natural bounds are not created. If the orientation of the contours is wrong, it is not corrected.
144: Trimmed Surface TopoDS_Face or TopoDS_Shell For the needs of interface processing, the basis surface must be a face. Shells are only processed if they are single-face. The contours (wires that are correctly oriented according to the definition of the IGES 142: Curve On Surface entity) are added to the face that is already created. If the orientation of the contours is wrong, it is corrected.
190: Plane Surface TopoDS_Face This type of IGES entity can only be used in BRep entities in place of an IGES 108 type entity. The geometrical support of the face is a Geom_Plane.

Boundary Representation Solid Entities

IGES entity type CASCADE shape Comments
186: ManifoldSolid TopoDS_Solid
514: Shell TopoDS_Shell
510: Face TopoDS_Face This is the lowest IGES entity in the BRep structure that can be specified as a starting point for translation.
508: Loop TopoDS_Wire
504: Edge List
502: Vertex List

Structure Entities

IGES entity type CASCADE shape Comments
402/1: Associativity Instance: Group with back pointers TopoDS_Compound
402/7: Associativity Instance: Group without back pointers TopoDS_Compound
402/9: Associativity Instance: Single Parent TopoDS_Face The translation of a SingleParent entity is only performed for 402 form 9 with entities 108/1 and 108/-1. The geometrical support for the TopoDS_Face is a Geom_Plane with boundaries: the parent plane defines the outer boundary; the child planes define the inner boundaries.

Subfigures

IGES entity type CASCADE shape Comments
308: Subfigure Definition TopoDS_Compound This IGES entity is only translated when there are no Singular Subfigure Instance entities.
408: Singular Subfigure Instance TopoDS_Compound This shape has the Subfigure Definition Compound as its origin and is positioned in space by its translation vector and its scale factor.

Transformation Matrix

IGES entity type CASCADE shape Comments
124: Transformation Matrix Geom_Transformation This entity is never translated alone. It must be included in the definition of another entity.

Messages

Messages are displayed concerning the normal functioning of the processor (transfer, loading, etc.). You must declare an include file:

#include <Interface_DT.hxx>

You have the choice of the following options for messages:

IDT_SetLevel (level);

level modifies the level of messages:

  • 0: no messages
  • 1: raise and fail messages are displayed, as are messages concerning file access,
  • 2: warnings are also displayed.
    IDT_SetFile (“tracefile.log”);
    prints the messages in a file,
    IDT_SetStandard();
    restores screen output.

Tolerance management

Values used for tolerances during reading IGES

During the transfer of IGES to Open CASCADE Technology several parameters are used as tolerances and precisions for different algorithms. Some of them are computed from other using specific functions.

3D (spatial) tolerances

  • Package method Precision::Confusion equal to 10-7 is used as a minimal distance between points, which are considered distinct.
  • Resolution in the IGES file is defined in the Global section of an IGES file. It is used as a fundamental value of precision during the transfer.
  • User-defined variable read.precision.val can be used instead of resolution from the file when parameter read.precision.mode is set to 1 ("User").
  • Field EpsGeom of the class IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface is a basic precision for translating an IGES object. It is set for each object of class IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface and its derived classes. It is initialized for the root of transfer either by value of resolution from the file or by value of read.precision.val, depending on the value of read.precision.mode parameter. It is returned by call to method IGESToBRep_CurvAndSurface::GetEpsGeom. As this value belongs to measurement units of the IGES file, it is usually multiplied by the coefficient UnitFactor (returned by method IGESToBRep_CurvAndSurface::GetUnitFactor) to convert it to Open CASCADE Technology units.
  • Field MaxTol of the class IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface is used as the maximum tolerance for some algorithms. Currently, it is computed as the maximum between 1 and GetEpsGeom * GetUnitFactor. This field is returned by method IGESToBRep_CurvAndSurface::GetMaxTol.

2D (parametric) tolerances

  • Package method Precision::PConfusion equal to 0.01*Precision::Confusion, i.e. 10-9. It is used to compare parametric bounds of curves.
  • Field EpsCoeff of the class IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface is a parametric precision for translating an IGES object. It is set for each object of class IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface and its derived classes. Currently, it always has its default value 10-6. It is returned by call to method IGESToBRep_CurvAndSurface::GetEpsCoeff. This value is used for translating 2d objects (for instance, parametric curves).
  • Methods UResolution(tolerance3d) and VResolution(tolerance3d) of the class GeomAdaptor_Surface or BRepAdaptor_Surface return tolerance in parametric space of a surface computed from 3D tolerance. When one tolerance value is to be used for both U and V parametric directions, the maximum or the minimum value of UResolution and VResolution is used.
  • Methods Resolution(tolerance3d) of the class GeomAdaptor_Curve or BRepAdaptor_Curve return tolerance in the parametric space of a curve computed from 3d tolerance.

Zero-dimensional tolerances

  • Field Epsilon of the class IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface is set for each object of class IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface and returned by call to method GetEpsilon. It is used in comparing angles and converting transformation matrices. In most cases, it is reset to a fixed value (10-5 - 10-3) right before use. The default value is 10-4.

Initial setting of tolerances in translating objects

Transfer starts from one entity treated as a root (either the actual root in the IGES file or an entity selected by the user). The function which performs the transfer (that is IGESToBRep_Actor::Transfer or IGESToBRep_Reader::Transfer) creates an object of the type IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface, which is intended for translating geometry.

This object contains three tolerances: Epsilon, EpsGeom and EpsCoeff.

Parameter Epsilon is set by default to value 10-4. In most cases when it is used in the package IGESToBRep, it is reset to a fixed value, either 10-5 or 10-4 or 10-3. It is used as precision when comparing angles and transformation matrices and does not have influence on the tolerance of the resulting shape.

Parameter EpsGeom is set right after creating a IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface object to the value of resolution, taken either from the Global section of an IGES file, or from the XSTEP.readprecision.val parameter, depending on the value of XSTEP.readprecision.mode.

Parameter EpsCoeff is set by default to 10-6 and is not changed.

During the transfer of a shape, new objects of type IGESToBRep_CurveAndSurface are created for translating subshapes. All of them have the same tolerances as the root object.

Transfer process

Translating into Geometry

Geometrical entities are translated by classes IGESToBRep_BasicCurve and IGESToBRep_BasicSurface. Methods of these classes convert curves and surfaces of an IGES file to Open CASCADE Technology geometry objects: Geom_Curve, Geom_Surface, and Geom_Transformation.

Since these objects are not BRep objects, they do not have tolerances. Hence, tolerance parameters are used in these classes only as precisions: to detect specific cases (e.g., to distinguish a circle, an ellipse, a parabola and a hyperbola) and to detect bad cases (such as coincident points).

Use of precision parameters is reflected in the following classes:

Translating into Topology

IGES entities represented as topological shapes and geometrical objects are translated into OCCT shapes by use of the classes IGESToBRep_TopoCurve, IGESToBRep_TopoSurface, IGESToBRep_BRepEntity and ShapeFix_Wire.

Class IGESToBRep_BRepEntity is intended for transferring BRep entities (IGES version is 5.1 or greater) while the two former are used for translating geometry and topology defined in IGES versions prior to 5.1. Methods from IGESToBRep_BRepEntity call methods from IGESToBRep_TopoCurve and IGESToBRep_TopoSurface, while those call methods from IGESToBRep_BasicCurve and IGESToBRep_BasicSurface to translate IGES geometry into OCCT geometry.

Although the IGES file contains only one parameter for tolerance in the Global Section, OCCT shapes are produced with different tolerances. As a rule, updating the tolerance is fulfilled according to local distances between shapes (distance between vertices of adjacent edges, deviation of edge’s 3D curve and its parametric curve and so on) and may be less or greater than precision in the file.

The following classes show what default tolerances are used when creating shapes and how they are updated during transfer.

Class IGESToBRep_TopoCurve

All methods are in charge of transferring curves from IGES curve entities (TransferCompositeCurve, Transfer2dCompositeCurve, TransferCurveOnFace, TransferBoundaryOnFace, TransferOffsetCurve, TransferTopoBasicCurve) if an entity has transformation call to IGESData_ToolLocation::ConvertLocation with Epsilon value set to 10-4.

Class IGESToBRep_TopoSurface

All faces created by this class have tolerance Precision::Confusion.

Class IGESToBRep_BRepEntity
Shape Healing classes

After performing a simple mapping, shape-healing algorithms are called (class ShapeFix_Shape) by IGESToBRep_Actor::Transfer(). Shape-healing algorithm performs the correction of the resulting OCCT shape. Class ShapeFix_Wire can increase the tolerance of a shape. This class is used in IGESToBRep_BRepEntity::TransferLoop, IGESToBRep_TopoCurve::TransferBoundaryOnFace and IGESToBRep_TopoCurve::TransferCurveOnFace for correcting a wire. The maximum possible tolerance applied to the edges or vertices after invoking the methods of this class is MaxTolerance (set by method ShapeFix_Wire::MaxTolerance() ).

Code architecture

The following diagram illustrates the structure of calls in reading IGES. The highlighted classes produce OCCT geometry.

iges_image003.png
The structure of calls in reading IGES

Example

#include “IGESControl_Reader.hxx”
#include “TColStd_HSequenceOfTransient.hxx”
#include “TopoDS_Shape.hxx”
{
IGESControl_Reader myIgesReader;
Standard_Integer nIgesFaces,nTransFaces;
myIgesReader.ReadFile (“MyFile.igs”);
//loads file MyFile.igs
Handle(TColStd_HSequenceOfTransient) myList = myIgesReader.GiveList(“iges-faces”);
//selects all IGES faces in the file and puts them into a list called //MyList,
nIgesFaces = myList-Length();
nTransFaces = myIgesReader.TransferList(myList);
//translates MyList,
cout<<"IGES Faces: "<<nIgesFaces<<" Transferred:"<<nTransFaces<<endl;
TopoDS_Shape sh = myIgesReader.OneShape();
//and obtains the results in an OCCT shape.
}

Writing IGES

Procedure

You can translate OCCT shapes to IGES entities in the following steps:

  1. Initialize the process.
  2. Set the translation parameters,
  3. Perform the model translation,
  4. Write the output IGES file.

You can translate several shapes before writing a file. Each shape will be a root entity in the IGES model.

Domain covered

There are two families of OCCT objects that can be translated:

  • geometrical,
  • topological.

Description of the process

Initializing the process

Choose the unit and the mode you want to use to write the output file as follows:

Setting the translation parameters

The following parameters are used for the OCCT-to-IGES translation.

  • write.iges.brep.mode: allows choosing the write mode:
    • "Faces" (0): OCCT TopoDS_Faces will be translated into IGES 144 (Trimmed Surface) entities, no BRep entities will be written to the IGES file,
    • "BRep" (1): OCCT TopoDS_Faces will be translated into IGES 510 (Face) entities, the IGES file will contain BRep entities. Read this parameter with:
      Standard_Integer byvalue = Interface_Static::IVal("write.iges.brep.mode");
      Modify this parameter with:
      Interface_Static::SetIVal ("write.iges.brep.mode", 1);
      Default value is "Faces" (0).
  • write.convertsurface.mode when writing to IGES in the BRep mode, this parameter indicates whether elementary surfaces (cylindrical, conical, spherical, and toroidal) are converted into corresponding IGES 5.3 entities (if the value of a parameter value is On), or written as surfaces of revolution (by default).
  • write.iges.unit: allows choosing the unit. The default unit for Open CASCADE Technology is "MM" (millimeter). You can choose to write a file into any unit accepted by IGES.
  • write.iges.header.autor: gives the name of the author of the file. The default value is the system name of the user.
  • write.iges.header.company: gives the name of the sending company. The default value is "" (empty).
  • write.iges.header.product: gives the name of the sending product. The default value is "CAS.CADE IGES processor Vx.x", where x.x means the current version of Open CASCADE Technology.
  • write.iges.header.receiver: – gives the name of the receiving company. The default value is "" (empty).
  • write.precision.mode: specifies the mode of writing the resolution value into the IGES file.
    • "Least" (-1): resolution value is set to the minimum tolerance of all edges and all vertices in an OCCT shape.
    • "Average" (0): resolution value is set to average between the average tolerance of all edges and the average tolerance of all vertices in an OCCT shape. This is the default value.
    • "Greatest" (1): resolution value is set to the maximum tolerance of all edges and all vertices in an OCCT shape.
    • "Session" (2): resolution value is that of the write.precision.val parameter.
    • Read this parameter with Standard_Integer ic = Interface_Static::IVal("write.precision.mode");
    • Modify this parameter with if (!Interface_Static::SetIVal("write.precision.mode",1)) .. error ..
  • write.precision.val: is the user precision value. This parameter gives the resolution value for an IGES file when the write.precision.mode parameter value is 1. It is equal to 0.0001 by default, but can take any real positive (non null) value.

Read this parameter with:

Standard_Real rp = Interface_Static::RVal(;write.precision.val;);

Modify this parameter with:

if (!Interface_Static::SetRVal(;write.precision.val;,0.01))
.. error ..

Default value is 0.0001.

write.iges.resource.name

and

write.iges.sequence

are the same as the corresponding read.iges.* parameters. Note that the default sequence for writing contains DirectFaces operator, which converts elementary surfaces based on left-hand axes (valid in CASCADE) to right-hand axes (which are valid only in IGES).

Default values :

write.iges.resource.name - IGES,
write.iges.sequence - ToIGES.

Performing the Open CASCADE Technology shape translation

You can perform the translation in one or several operations. Here is how you translate topological and geometrical objects:

Standard_Boolean ok = writer.AddShape (TopoDS_Shape);

ok is True if translation was correctly performed and False if there was at least one entity that was not translated.

Standard_Boolean ok = writer.AddGeom (geom);

where geom is Handle(Geom_Curve) or Handle(Geom_Surface); ok is True if the translation was correctly performed and False if there was at least one entity whose geometry was not among the allowed types.

Writing the IGES file

Write the IGES file with:

Standard_Boolean ok = writer.Write ("filename.igs");

to give the file name.

Standard_Boolean ok = writer.Write (S);

where S is Standard_OStream ok is True if the operation was correctly performed and False if an error occurred (for instance, if the processor could not create the file).

Mapping Open CASCADE Technology shapes to IGES entities

Translated objects depend on the write mode that you chose. If you chose the Face mode, all of the shapes are translated, but the level of topological entities becomes lower (geometrical one). If you chose the BRep mode, topological OCCT shapes become topological IGES entities.

Curves

CASCADE shape IGES entity type Comments
Geom_BsplineCurve 126: BSpline Curve
Geom_BezierCurve 126: BSpline Curve
Geom_TrimmedCurve All types of translatable IGES curves The type of entity output depends on the type of the basis curve. If the curve is not trimmed, limiting points will be defined by the CASCADE RealLast value.
Geom_Circle 100: Circular Arc or 126: BSpline Curve A BSpline Curve is output if the Geom_Circle is closed
Geom_Ellipse 104: Conic Arc or 126: BSpline Curve A Conic Arc has Form 1. A BSpline Curve is output if the Geom_Ellipse is closed.
Geom_Hyperbola 104: Conic Arc Form 2
Geom_Parabola 104: Conic Arc Form 3
Geom_Line 110: Line
Geom_OffsetCurve 130: Offset Curve

Surfaces

CASCADE shapes IGES entity type Comments
Geom_BSplineSurface 128: BSpline Surface
Geom_BezierSurface 128: BSpline Surface
Geom_RectangularTrimmedSurface All types of translatable IGES surfaces. The type of entity output depends on the type of the basis surface. If the surface is not trimmed and has infinite edges/sides, the coordinates of the sides in IGES will be limited to the CASCADE RealLast value.
Geom_Plane 128: BSpline Surface or 190: Plane Surface A BSpline Surface (of degree 1 in U and V) is output if you are working in the face mode. A Plane Surface is output if you are working in the BRep mode.
Geom_CylindricalSurface 120: Surface Of Revolution
Geom_ConicalSurface 120: Surface Of Revolution
Geom_SphericalSurface 120: Surface Of Revolution
Geom_ToroidalSurface 120: Surface Of Revolution
Geom_SurfaceOfLinearExtrusion 122: Tabulated Cylinder
Geom_SurfaceOfRevolution 120: Surface Of Revolution
Geom_OffsetSurface 140: Offset Surface

Topological entities -- Translation in Face mode

CASCADE shapes IGES entity type Comments
Single TopoDS_Vertex 116: 3D Point
TopoDS_Vertex in a TopoDS_Edge No equivalent Not transferred.
TopoDS_Edge All types of translatable IGES curves The output IGES curve will be the one that corresponds to the Open CASCADE Technology definition.
Single TopoDS_Wire 102: Composite Curve Each TopoDS_Edge in the TopoDS_Wire results in a curve.
TopoDS_Wire in a TopoDS_Face 142: Curve On Surface Both curves (3D and pcurve) are transferred if they are defined and result in a simple curve or a composite curve depending on whether there is one or more edges in the wire.Note: if the basis surface is a plane (108), only the 3D curve is used.
TopoDS_Face 144: Trimmed Surface
TopoDS_Shell 402: Form 1 Group or no equivalent Group is created only if TopoDS_Shell contains more than one TopoDS_Face. The IGES group contains Trimmed Surfaces.
TopoDS_Solid 402: Form 1 Group or no equivalent Group is created only if TopoDS_Solid contains more than one TopoDS_Shell. One IGES entity is created per TopoDS_Shell.
TopoDS_CompSolid 402: Form 1 Group or no equivalent Group is created only if TopoDS_CompSolid contains more than one TopoDS_Solid. One IGES entity is created per TopoDS_Solid.
TopoDS_Compound 402: Form 1 Group or no equivalent Group is created only if TopoDS_Compound contains more than one item. One IGES entity is created per TopoDS_Shape in the TopoDS_Compound. If TopoDS_Compound is nested into another TopoDS_Compound, it is not mapped.

Topological entities -- Translation in BRep mode

CASCADE shapes IGES entity type Comments
Single TopoDS_Vertex No equivalent Not transferred.
TopoDS_Vertex in a TopoDS_Edge One item in a 502: VertexList
TopoDS_Edge No equivalent Not transferred as such. This entity serves as a part of a Loop entity.
TopoDS_Edge in a TopoDS_Wire One item in a 504: EdgeList
TopoDS_Wire 508: Loop
TopoDS_Face 510: Face If the geometrical support of the face is a plane, it will be translated as a 190 entity PlaneSurface.
TopoDS_Shell 514: Shell
TopoDS_Solid 186: Manifold Solid
TopoDS_CompSolid 402 Form1 Group or no equivalent Group is created only if TopoDS_Compound contains more than one item. One IGES Manifold Solid is created for each TopoDS_Solid in the TopoDS_CompSolid.
TopoDS_Compound 402 Form1 Group or no equivalent Group is created only if TopoDS_Compound contains more than one item. One IGES entity is created per TopoDS_Shape in the TopoDS_Compound. If TopoDS_Compound is nested into another TopoDS_Compound it is not mapped.

Tolerance management

Setting resolution in an IGES file

There are several possibilities to set resolution in an IGES file. They are controlled by write.precision.mode parameter; the dependence between the value of this parameter and the set resolution is described in paragraph Setting the translation parameters.

If the value of parameter write.precision.mode is -1, 0 or 1, resolution is computed from tolerances of sub-shapes inside the shape to be translated. In this computation, only tolerances of TopoDS_Edges and TopoDS_Vertices participate since they reflect the accuracy of the shape. TopoDS_Faces are ignored in computations since their tolerances may have influence on resulting computed resolution while IGES resolution mainly concerns points and curves but not surfaces.

Code architecture

Graph of calls

The following diagram illustrates the class structure in writing IGES. The highlighted classes are intended to translate geometry.

iges_image004.png
The class structure in writing IGES

Example

{c++}
#include <IGESControl_Controller.hxx>
#include <IGESControl_Writer.hxx>
#include <TopoDS_Shape.hxx>
Standard_Integer main()
{
IGESControl_Controller::Init();
IGESControl_Writer ICW (;MM;, 0);
//creates a writer object for writing in Face mode with millimeters
TopoDS_Shape sh;
ICW.AddShape (sh);
//adds shape sh to IGES model
ICW.ComputeModel();
Standard_Boolean OK = ICW.Write (;MyFile.igs;);
//writes a model to the file MyFile.igs
}

Using XSTEPDRAW

XSTEPDRAW UL is intended for creating executables for testing XSTEP interfaces interactively in the DRAW environment. It provides an additional set of DRAW commands specific for the data exchange tasks, which allow loading and writing data files and analysis of resulting data structures and shapes.

In the description of commands, square brackets ([]) are used to indicate optional parameters. Parameters given in the angle brackets (<>) and sharps (#) are to be substituted by an appropriate value. When several exclusive variants are possible, vertical dash (|) is used.

Setting interface parameters

A set of parameters for importing and exporting IGES files is defined in the XSTEP resource file. In XSTEPDRAW, these parameters can be viewed or changed using command

Draw> param [<parameter_name> [<value>]]

Command param with no arguments gives a list of all parameters with their values. When argument parameter_name is specified, information about this parameter is printed (current value and short description).

The third argument is used to set a new value of the given parameter. The result of the setting is printed immediately.

During all interface operations, the protocol of the process (fail and warning messages, mapping of the loaded entities into OCCT shapes etc.) can be output to the trace file. Two parameters are defined in the DRAW session: trace level (integer value from 0 to 9, default is 0), and trace file (default is a standard output).

Command xtrace is intended to view and change these parameters:

  • Draw> xtrace – prints current settings (e.g.: "Level=0 - Standard Output");
  • Draw> xtrace # – sets the trace level to the value #;
  • Draw> xtrace tracefile.log – sets the trace file as tracefile.log;
  • Draw xtrace – directs all messages to the standard output.

Reading IGES files

For a description of parameters used in reading an IGES file refer to Setting the translation parameters.

These parameters are set by command param :

Description Name Values
Precision for input entities read.precision.mode 0 or 1
read.precision.val real
Continuity of B splines read.iges.bspline.continuity 0-2
Surface curves read.surfacecurve.mode 2, 3 or 0

It is possible either only to load an IGES file into memory (i.e. to fill the model with data from the file), or to read it (i.e. to load and convert all entities to OCCT shapes).

Loading is done by the command

Draw> xload <file_name>

Once the file is loaded, it is possible to investigate the structure of the loaded data. To learn how to do it see Analyzing the transferred.

Reading of an IGES file is done by the command

Draw> igesbrep <file_name> <result_shape_name> [<selection>]

Here a dot can be used instead of a filename if the file is already loaded by xload or igesbrep command. In that case, only conversion of IGES entities to OCCT shapes will be done.

Command igesbrep will interactively ask the user to select a set of entities to be converted:

N Mode Description
0 End finish conversion and exit igesbrep
1 Visible roots convert only visible roots
2 All roots convert all roots
3 One entity convert entity with number provided by the user
4 Selection convert only entities contained in selection

After the selected set of entities is loaded the user will be asked how loaded entities should be converted into OCCT shapes (e.g., one shape per root or one shape for all the entities). It is also possible to save loaded shapes in files, and to cancel loading.

The second parameter of the igesbrep command defines the name of the loaded shape. If several shapes are created, they will get indexed names. For instance, if the last parameter is ‘s’, they will be s_1, ... s_N.

<selection> specifies the scope of selected entities in the model, it is xst-transferrable-roots by default. An asterisk “*” can be specified instead of iges-visible-transf-roots. For possible values of selection refer to Selecting entities section.

Instead of igesbrep it is possible to use commands:

Draw> trimport <file_name> <result_shape_name> <selection>

which outputs the result of translation of each selected entity into one shape, or

Draw> trimpcomp <file_name> <result_shape_name> <selection>

which outputs the result of translation of all selected entities into one shape (TopoDS_Compound for several entities).

An asterisk “*” can be specified instead of selection, it means xst-transferrable-roots.

During the IGES translation, a map of correspondence between IGES entities and OCCT shapes is created. The following commands are available:

  • Draw> tpent # – provides information on the result of translation of the given IGES entity;
  • Draw> tpdraw # –creates an OCCT shape corresponding to an IGES entity;
  • Draw> fromshape <shape_name> – provides the number of an IGES entity corresponding to an OCCT shape;
  • Draw> tpclear – clears the map of correspondences between IGES entities and OCCT shapes.

Analyzing the transferred data

The procedure of analysis of the data import can be divided into two stages:

  1. Checking the file contents;
  2. Estimation of translation results (conversion and validated ratios).

Checking file contents

General statistics on the loaded data can be obtained by using command

Draw> data <symbol>

The information printed by this command depends on the symbol specified:

Symbol Output
g Prints information contained in the header of the file (Start and Global sections)
c or f Runs check procedure of the integrity of the loaded data and prints the resulting statistics (f works only with fails while c with both fail and warning messages)
t The same as c or f, with a list of failed or warned entities
m or l The same as t but also prints a status for each entity
e Lists all entities of the model with their numbers, types, status of validity etc.
r The same as e but lists only root entities

There is a set of special objects, which can be used to operate with the loaded model. They can be of the following types:

Special object type Operation
Selection Filters allow selecting subsets of entities of the loaded model
Counters Calculate statistics on the model data

A list of these objects defined in the current session can be printed in DRAW by command

Draw> listitems

In the following commands if several <selection> arguments are specified the results of each following selection are applied to the results of the previous one.

Draw> givelist <selection_name> [<selection_name>]

prints a list of loaded entities defined by selection argument.

Draw> givecount <selection_name> [<selection_name>]

prints a number of loaded entities defined by selection argument.

Three commands are used to calculate statistics on the entities in the model:

  • Draw> count <counter> [<selection> ...] – prints only a number of entities per each type matching the criteria defined by arguments.
  • Draw> sumcount <counter> [<selection> ...] – prints the total number of entities of all types matching the criteria defined by arguments and the largest number corresponding to one type.
  • Draw> listcount <counter> [<selection> ...] – prints a list of entities per each type matching the criteria defined by arguments.

Optional <selection> argument, if specified, defines a subset of entities, which are to be taken into account. Argument <counter> should be one of the currently defined counters:

Counter Operation
xst-types Calculates how much entities of each OCCT type exist
iges-types Calculates how much entities of each IGES type and form exist
iges-levels Calculates how much entities lie in different IGES levels

The command:

Draw> listtypes <selection_name> ...

gives a list of entity types which were encountered in the last loaded file (with a number of IGES entities of each type). The list can be shown not for all entities but for a subset of them. This subset is defined by an optional selection argument.

Entities in the IGES file are numbered in the succeeding order. An entity can be identified either by its number (#) or by its label. Label is the letter ‘D’ followed by the index of the first line with the data for this entity in the Directory Entry section of the IGES file. The label can be calculated on the basis of the number as ‘D(2*# -1)’. For example, entity # 6 has label D11.

  • Draw> elab # – provides a label for an entity with a known number;
  • Draw> enum # – prints a number for an entity with the given label;
  • Draw> entity # <level_of_information> – gives the content of an IGES entity;
  • Draw> estat # – provides the list of entities referenced by a given entity and the list of entities referencing to it.

Estimating the results of reading IGES

All of the following commands are available only after the data are converted into OCCT shapes (i.e. after command igesbrep).

Draw> tpstat [*|?]<symbol> [<selection>]

provides all statistics on the last transfer, including the list of transferred entities with mapping from IGES to OCCT types, as well as fail and warning messages. The parameter <symbol> defines what information will be printed:

  • G – General statistics (list of results and messages)
  • C – Count of all warning and fail messages
  • C – List of all warning and fail messages
  • F – Count of all fail messages
  • F – List of all fail messages
  • N – List of all transferred roots
  • S – The same, with types of source entity and result type
  • B – The same, with messages
  • T – Count of roots for geometrical types
  • R – Count of roots for topological types
  • l – The same, with a type of the source entity

The sign ‘*’ before the parameters n, s, b, t, r makes it work on all entities (not only on roots). The sign ‘?’ before n, s, b, t limits the scope of information to invalid entities.

Optional argument <selection> can limit the action of the command with a selected subset of entities. To get help, run this command without arguments.

For example, to get translation ratio on IGES faces, you can use.

Draw:> tpstat *l iges-faces

The second version of the same command is TPSTAT (not capital spelling).

Draw:> TPSTAT <symbol>

Symbol can be of the following values:

  • g – General statistics (list of results and messages)
  • c – Count of all warning and fail messages
  • C – List of all warning and fail messages
  • r – Count of resulting OCCT shapes per each type
  • s – Mapping of IGES roots and resulting OCCT shapes

Sometimes the trimming contours of IGES faces (i.e., entity 141 for 143, 142 for 144) can be lost during translation due to fails.

The number of lost trims and the corresponding IGES entities can be obtained by the command:

Draw> tplosttrim [<IGES_type>]

It outputs the rank and DE numbers of faces that lost their trims and their numbers for each type (143, 144, 510) and their total number. If a face lost several of its trims it is output only once.

Optional parameter <IGES_type> can be TrimmedSurface, BoundedSurface or Face to specify the only type of IGES faces.

For example, to get untrimmed 144 entities, use command

Draw> tplosttrim TrimmedSurface

To get the information on OCCT shape contents, use command

Draw> statshape <shape_name>

It outputs the number of each kind of shapes (vertex, edge, wire, etc.) in a shape and some geometrical data (number of C0 surfaces, curves, indirect surfaces, etc.).

Note. The number of faces is returned as a number of references. To obtain the number of single instances the standard command (from TTOPOLOGY executable) nbshapes can be used.

To analyze the internal validity of a shape, use command

Draw> checkbrep <shape_name> <expurged_shape_name>

It checks the geometry and topology of a shape for different cases of inconsistency, like self-intersecting wires or wrong orientation of trimming contours. If an error is found, it copies bad parts of the shape with the names "expurged_subshape_name _#" and generates an appropriate message. If possible, this command also tries to find IGES entities the OCCT shape was produced from.

<expurged_shape_name> will contain the original shape without invalid subshapes.

To get information on tolerances of subshapes, use command

Draw> tolerance <shape_name> [<min> [<max>] [<symbol>]]

It outputs maximum, average and minimum values of tolerances for each kind of subshapes having tolerances or it can output tolerances of all subshapes of the whole shape.

When specifying min and max arguments this command outputs shapes with names <shape_name>... and their total number with tolerances in the range [min, max].

<Symbol> is used for specifying the kind of sub-shapes to analyze:

  • v – for vertices,
  • e – for edges,
  • f – for faces,
  • c – for shells and faces.

Writing an IGES file

Refer to Setting the translation parameters for a description of parameters used in reading an IGES file. The parameters are set by command param:

Description Name Values
Author XSTEP.iges.header.author String
Company XSTEP.iges.header.company String
Receiver XSTEP.iges.header.receiver String
Write mode for shapes XSTEP.iges.writebrep.mode 0/Faces or 1/BRep
Measurement units XSTEP.iges.unit 1-11 (or a string value)

Several shapes can be written in one file. To start writing a new file, enter command

Draw> newmodel

This command clears the InterfaceModel to make it empty.

Draw> brepiges <shape_name_1> [<filename.igs>]

Converts the specified shapes into IGES entities and puts them into the InterfaceModel.

Draw> writeall <filename.igs>

Allows writing the prepared model to a file with name filename.igs.

Reading from and writing to IGES

Reading from IGES

Load an IGES file

Before performing any other operation, you must load an IGES file with:

IGESCAFControl_Reader reader(XSDRAW::Session(), Standard_False);
IFSelect_ReturnStatus stat = reader.ReadFile(“filename.igs”);

Loading the file only memorizes, but does not translate the data.

Check the loaded IGES file

This step is not obligatory. See the description of Checking the IGES file above.

Set parameters for translation to XDE

See the description of Setting translation parameters above.

In addition, the following parameters can be set for XDE translation of attributes:

  • For transferring colors:
    reader.SetColorMode(mode);
    // mode can be Standard_True or Standard_False
  • For transferring names:
    reader.SetNameMode(mode);
    // mode can be Standard_True or Standard_False

Translate an IGES file to XDE

The following function performs a translation of the whole document:

Standard_Boolean ok = reader.Transfer(doc);

where doc is a variable which contains a handle to the output document and should have a type Handle(TDocStd_Document).

Writing to IGES

The translation from XDE to IGES can be initialized as follows:

IGESCAFControl_Writer aWriter(XSDRAW::Session(),Standard_False);

Set parameters for translation from XDE to IGES

The following parameters can be set for translation of attributes to IGES:

  • For transferring colors:
    aWriter.SetColorMode(mode);
    // mode can be Standard_True or Standard_False
  • For transferring names:
    aWriter.SetNameMode(mode);
    // mode can be Standard_True or Standard_False

Translate an XDE document to IGES

You can perform the translation of a document by calling the function:

IFSelect_ReturnStatus aRetSt = aWriter.Transfer(doc);

where "doc" is a variable which contains a handle to the input document for transferring and should have a type Handle(TDocStd_Document).

Write an IGES file

Write an IGES file with:

IFSelect_ReturnStatus statw = aWriter.WriteFile("filename.igs");

or

IFSelect_ReturnStatus statw = writer.WriteFile (S);

where S is OStream.